Quality Sport Programs

The following is a list of programs developed by National Sport Organizations targeted at children between the ages of 2 and 12. These quality programs have embedded Canadian Sport for Life values and principles, and they are recommended for the development of physical literacy in children.

FUNdamentals: Snow Stars level 1, 2 & 3

Learn to Train: Snow Stars, level 4 & 5

Canada is a country known for its winter. Canadian families the country over have spent countless hours enjoying the snow, and for millions of us, that enjoyment has centred around skiing. Our country has produced many world-class ski racing athletes, and Alpine Canada Alpin has invested in programs that will help ensure our skiers both continue to compete on the international stage and are able to remain active for life.

Alpine Skiing teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Alpine Skiing’s Long-Term Skier Development (LTSD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Gliding Start (M, F 0-5) – Teaches fundamental movement skills and encourages children to learn to play on skis.
  • Skier Essentials (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Develops overall movement skills while initiating the game of ski racing.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 9-11) – Introduces general ski fitness and refines basic skiing skills.
  • Learn to Race (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Trains the quick start to finish without falling and without supervision.
  • Train to Race (M 16-23, F 15-21) – Optimizes the engine for ski racing competition and teaches winning strategies, while mastering event specific ski racing skills.
  • Train to Win (M 19+, F 18+) – Realizes and refines winning strategies at the professional level.
  • Ski for Life (M, F any age) – Maintains enjoyment of physical activity and continued participation in ski racing, whether competitively or recreationally.

LTSD for Alpine Racing
This model outlines the ski racer development pathway, beginning at approximately six years old and lasting for life.

BC Alpine LTSD Plan
This plan follows the AIM2WIN approach and identifies the crucial stages for creating strong, skilled skiers, regardless of whether they choose the competitive or recreational path.

The Husky Snow Stars covers the Skier Essentials and Learn to Race stages, and develops young skiers between the ages of five and 12.

Carving the Future consists of the Development Stages. This program helps individuals with a congenital or acquired disability to discover Para-alpine ski racing.

Alpine Canada Alpin – alpinecanada.org/

FUNdamentals: CanBow

Learn to Train: CanBow

It only takes a single moment to become an archer. You may hold a bow for the first time at summer camp, with a family member or friend on a hunting trip, or watch Olympic archery on the television and decide to become a champion. You may be five years old, or 50. The essential thing is that your first exposure to archery is FUN.

Archery teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Archery's Long-Term Archer Development (LTAD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6 or 0 years in sport) – Learns fundamental movement and link them in play settings.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8 or 0-4 years in sport) – Builds overall motor skills with an emphasis on initiation, sport basics and safety.
  • Learn to Shoot (1-4 years in sport) – Develops overall sport skills with an emphasis on development of form.
  • Train to Shoot (2-8 years in sport) – Establishes an aerobic base, develops speed and strength, and consolidates sport-specific skills.
  • Train to Compete (4-10 years in sport) – Optimizes physical preparation and sport-specific skills, while learning competition and performance skills.
  • Shoot to Excel (7+ years in sport) – Maximizes overall skills and preparation while perfecting focus and flow, and shooting for rankings.
  • Shoot for Life (Any age) – Encourages lifelong participation, whether competitive or recreational, in physical activity and/or sport.

LTAD Model
This document outlines the key principles of the FCA LTAD model.

CanBow includes the FUNdamentalsLearn to Shoot and Train to Shoot stages. It offers archers under the age of 21 an opportunity to improve their shooting skills and knowledge.

Archery Canada – archerycanada.ca

FUNdamentals: Run, Jump, Throw, Wheel

Learn to Train: Run, Jump, Throw, Wheel

Through its dedication to the Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model, Canadian athletics will move to the forefront of international athletics. Children will develop fundamental sport skills and abilities during critical periods of adaptation to training that can be used in track and field events as well as in other sports. Canada has talented coaches, officials and administrators who can ensure our impact on the world front in athletics.

Along with teamwork, athletics teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Athletics’ LTAD model consists of nine stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Makes play and physical activity a fun, daily routine.
  • FUNdamental (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Begins teaching the ABCs while continuing to instill the importance of daily play and physical activity.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Continues to enhance the ABCs and begins integrating physical, mental, cognitive and emotional development as well as physical literacy.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Develops endurance, strength and speed as well as athletics-specific skills and fitness.
  • Learn to Compete (M 16-18+, F 15-17+) – Focuses on event-specific preparation and continues to enhance each developmental aspect of the athlete.
  • Train to Compete (M 18-21+, F 17-21+) – Optimizes and refines event-specific preparation and athlete development.
  • Learn to Win (M, F 20-23+) – Maximizes preparation for high performance results.
  • Win for a Living (M, F 23+/-) – Prepares athletes to compete at the highest levels, while maximizing training, competition and recovery activities.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Integrates high performance athletes into society and encourages everyone – whether competitive or recreational athletes – to remain active for life.

Athletics Canada: LTAD
This document provides the framework for an optimal training, competition and recovery schedule for each stage of athletic development.

Run Jump Throw Wheel (RJTW) is the grassroots development program for athletics. This FUNdamentals program teaches the skills of running, jumping and throwing, and the technical skill progressions for track and field events.

Sport Manitoba's "How Athletics is Changing" article offers some groundbreaking information on the changes being made to Athletics in Canada.

Athletics Canada – athletics.ca

FUNdamentals: Shuttle Time

Learn to Train: Shuttle Time

In Canada, badminton is a popular recreational sport played at all levels, from elementary schools to private clubs. Hundreds of thousands of Canadians play the sport in one form or another. Although this large participant base hasn’t translated to much international success yet, Badminton Canada has now adopted a Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) plan based on Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L) principles. This will help develop a more physically active nation and more future badminton athletes.

Along with teamwork, badminton teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Badminton’s LTAD model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Teaches fundamental movements and makes physical activity a fun, daily routine.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Begins teaching the ABCs and overall skill development, including badminton-specific skills.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Develops fundamental badminton skills and physical literacy.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Focuses on major fitness development with an emphasis on aerobic development at the onset of the growth spurt.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-19, F 15-18) – Enhances performance based on the discipline preference (singles, doubles or mixed) of the individual.
  • Learn to Win (M 19-23, F 18-21) – Refines previously developed capacities and heightens experience and confidence in national and international competitions.
  • Train to Win (M 23+, F 21+) – Maximizes all previously established capacities, thereby maximizing performance.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Transitions high performance athletes into a participation role and encourages everyone – whether competitive or recreational athletes – to remain active for life.

Badminton Canada – badminton.ca

FUNdamentals: Rally Cap

Learn to Train: Grand Slam

Baseball is a team sport requiring the skills and involvement of a number of players contributing in significant and differing ways. It can be played anywhere – parks, playgrounds, back alleys or fields – and by males and females of any age. Through Baseball Canada’s focus on “Throwing, Catching and Hitting”, young athletes in Canada will develop these fundamental skills.

Along with teamwork, baseball teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Baseball’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of nine stages.

  • Active Start (M, F Under-6) – Encourages fundamental movement skills through play.
  • FUNdamental (M, F U9) – Teaches kids fundamental movement skills while maintaining an emphasis on FUN.
  • Learn to Train (M U15, F U11) – Teaches fundamental sport skills.
  • Train to Train (M U15, F U16) – Begins developing specific skills and position play during the identification years.
  • Learn to Compete (M, F U18) – Consolidates specific skills and position play as players actualize their goals.
  • Train to Compete (M, F U23) – Combines specific skills, position play and training for high-performance athletes.
  • Learn to Win (M, F U18) – Fine tunes skills and position play at the semi-professional level.
  • Train to Win (M 21+) – Perfects skills and position play at the highest levels.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages players to remain in the game, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

Baseball Canada: LTAD
This framework will integrate and align athlete development, coaching development and all elements of our baseball system so that our athletes can reach optimal performance at all stages of development.

Rally Cap, Baseball Canada’s Official Initiation Program, teaches young baseball players the FUNdamentals, while aiming to increase overall interest in baseball.

The Grand Slam Program targets the FUNdamental and Learn to Train stages. It is a follow up to Rally Cap and will focus on players aged 9 through 11. This program is expected to start in the coming year.

Pitch Count covers the Learn to Train and Train to Train stages, and considers the development and safety of young pitchers.

Reaching Baseball Ideals (RBI) covers each developmental stage. Its purpose is to ensure that all baseball associations apply the same criteria and proper practices. RBI also empowers parents to become informed about their children’s involvement in baseball.

Baseball Canada - baseball.ca

FUNdamentals: Steve Nash Youth Basketball

Learn to Train: Steve Nash Youth Basketball

As basketball rises in profile, popularity and participation among Canadian youth, we feel now is the time to improve this country’s basketball infrastructure. Basketball as we know it in Canada is about to change. It is time to offer more and better programming at all levels within the system. Canada Basketball will lead this change and establish us as a world leader in basketball.

Along with teamwork, basketball teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Basketball’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Makes play and physical activity a fun, daily routine.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Begins teaching fundamental movement skills and the ABCs through basketball, while continuing to focus on enjoyment.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Establishes the fundamental movement skills that are the cornerstone of all athletic development.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Continues to build the athletic base while introducing, emphasizing and refining specific sport skills.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-18, F 15-18) – Teaches athletes how to compete under any kind of circumstance, with consideration for athletes who are late entering the sport.
  • Learn to Win (M 18-25+/-, F 18-23+/-) – Maximizes fluency of all basketball and position-specific skills needed for success at the high performance level.
  • Train to Win (M 25+/-, F 23+/-) – Introduces new strategies as well as offensive and defensive sets and philosophies, with a focus on technical and tactical refinement.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Transitions high performance athletes into physical activity and encourages everyone – with either a competitive or recreational focus – to remain active for life.

Canada Basketball Long-Term Athlete Development Model
The Canada Basketball Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) Model is based on the Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L) Re- source Paper, developed by Canadian world leaders in the areas of child and sport development. The LTAD Model is athlete centered, coach driven, and administration, sport science, and partners supported. The model integrates elite, community, and scholastic sport, physical education, athletes with a disability, and the general health of the nation.

Basketball BC: Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L) Implementation Plan
This document outlines the actions Basketball BC will undertake to implement CS4L’s LTAD.

Steve Nash Youth Basketball is a national youth basketball initiative designed to develop FUNdamental skills, sportsmanship and a love for the game of basketball.

The Community Coach program has been developed by Canada Basketball in conjunction with the Coaching Association of Canada to deliver an extensive coach education program for the volunteer coach who works with children at the FUNdamentalsstage.

The Intro to Comp coaching program has been developed by Canada Basketball in conjunction with the Coaching Association of Canada to deliver an extensive coach education program for the volunteer coach who works with children at the Learn to Train stage.

The Intro to Comp Advanced is an extension to the Intro to Comp coaching program and is designed for the coach at the Train to Train stage of development.

Canada Basketball – basketball.ca

Learn to Train: Biathlon Bears

The link between grassroots development and high-level international performance has been well known for many years. During the past couple of decades, Biathlon Canada has worked toward the development of a long-term vision for international podium success. Biathlon Canada has since established a comprehensive Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model that acts as an information guide for those involved with biathlon, as well as a road map to international success for athletes.

Biathlon teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Biathlon’s LTAD model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-5) – Establishes play and games that foster repetitive rehearsal and learning as well as the foundations for the ABCs.
  • FUNdamentals (M, F 6-7) – Teaches children the fundamental skills that support athletic performance while maintaining an emphasis on FUN.
  • Learn to Train (M, F 8-9) – Introduces children to more formal forms of play, including child-adapted adult sports, that allow them to elaborate on earlier physical skills.
  • Train to Train (M, F 10-15) – Formalizes practicing for sport and establishes training that will help build self-confidence.
  • Train to Compete (M, F 16-20) – Focuses more intense training on learning competitive skills and performance characteristics.
  • Train to Win (M, F 21+/-) – Refines competitive skills to the point where athletes can consistently perform at the elite level in competitions.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Encourages individuals to remain physically active, whether in a competitive or recreational capacity, for life.

Volume 1: Biathlon Canada LTAD model - Provides the research background and the theoretical foundation for long-term athlete development, filtered for the context of biathlon.

Volume 2: Biathlon Canada LTAD model - Expresses Volume 1’s principles in a concrete program model, which sets the parameters for program design by biathlon coaches in Canada.

Biathlon BC’s Canadian Sport for Life plan V2 - Provides a brief description of the national LTAD model, as well as an inventory, description and review of current Biathlon BC programs and activities.

The Biathlon Bears Community Sport Program focuses on the Learn to Train stage and is intended to serve an age group primarily situated between 8 and 14 years. This community sport program includes a comprehensive three-tier biathlon skills program and a participant recognition program.

The Biathlon Bears Community Coaching Program covers the Active for Life stage and includes a full three-level coaching education curriculum (Bronze, Silver and Gold), a comprehensive three-tier biathlon skills program and a participant recognition program.

Biathlon Canada – biathloncanada.ca

Active Start: Youth Bowling Canada

FUNdamentals: Youth Bowling Canada

Learn to Train: Youth Bowling Canada

Not everyone is familiar with bowling opportunities. People who are new to Canada, or have disabilities, may have no knowledge of bowling programs that are open and suitable for their participation. Bowling centres cater to people of all ages who have fun participating in a physical activity, often while socializing with friends. But while this sport can be entirely social, it can also be highly competitive at many levels.

Along with teamwork, bowling teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Bowling’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-5) – Encourages children to bowl for fun.
  • FUNdamentals (M 5-9, F 5-8) – Introduces fundamental movement skills through bowling and participation in physical activity.
  • Learn to Bowl (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Uses fundamental sport skills to enjoy practicing and competing.
  • Train to Perform (M 13-15, F 12-14) – Commits to technical and physical preparation in order to become a high level competitive bowler.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-18+, F 15-16+) – Performs consistently in training and competition at the provincial and national level.
  • Train to Win (M, F any age) – Prepares for the predictable and improbable while maximizing and emphasizing the psychological aspect of the game, with the purpose of succeeding at the national and international levels.
  • Bowl for Life (M, F any age) – Promotes bowling for fun, fitness and health, and playing either competitively or recreationally.

LTAD Plan for Bowling
A model that meets the developmental needs of its athletes while reflecting the specific nature of bowling.

Bowling Federation of Canada – canadabowls.ca

FUNdamentals: Lace to the Top & Broomball for Fun

Broomball in Canada is thriving, with steady growth evident across the country. Progressive broomball introduces new participants and young children in a systematic way using age- and skill-appropriate modified teaching systems. At the grassroots level, our strategy of developing provincial and national partnerships to ensure broomball is meeting and addressing community needs is also growing our game.

Along with teamwork, broomball teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Broomball’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of six stages.

  • FUNdamentals (first year beginner player) – Teaches the skills required to play the game, taking into consideration the biological age of the participants.
  • Learn to Train (second and third year intermediate player) – Acquires the ability to combine technical skills within a basic tactical framework.
  • Train to Train (fourth and fifth year advanced player, four to five years experience) – Develops and refines broomball tactics with the introduction of physical and mental preparation to play the game effectively.
  • Train to Compete / Train to Win (elite player with six years of experience or more) – Refines and perfects the skills, tactics and fitness to play broomball.
  • Broomball for Life (any age) – Encourages players to stay in the game, whether competitively or recreationally, for life.

Broomball Canada LTAD
The LTAD model has been developed to ensure Canadians have a clear understanding of the six stages of development and provides the reader with information on the key components of the broomball sport system.

LTAD Brochure
This pathway includes a stage-by-stage approach for individuals participating in sport for health, fitness and fun, as well as for high performance sport.

Broomball For Fun (BF2) focuses on the FUNdamentals and aims to introduce young Canadians to the basics of this good-natured sport.

Broomball to Compete, which will target the Learn to Train stage, is in development.

Canadian Broomball Federation – broomball.ca

FUNdamentals: CanoeKids

Paddling is a sport that has been led by knowledgeable, competent and experienced group of professional coaches and dedicated volunteers. These people have achieved success in the sustained development of athletes throughout all stages of the athlete development model. To ensure that CanoeKayak Canada continues to be successful, we have developed a Long-Term Athlete Development model that will help align all aspects of paddling across Canada.

Along with teamwork, paddling teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Canoe and Kayak's Sprint Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Encourages children to explore fundamental movement skills and link them together into play.
  • FUNdamentals & Foundations (M 6-12, F 6-11) – Develops a range of overall sport skills, builds water sense and safety awareness and teaches basic boat and paddle handling skills in age-appropriate sprint canoes and kayaks.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Focuses on physiological development and technique while addressing the ABCs.
  • Learn to Compete (M 14-17+/-, F 13-15+/-) – Refines and consolidates paddling skills and develops sport-specific physiological components while introducing race.
  • Train to Compete (M 17-23+/-, F 15-23+/-) – Further develops and refines both physiological components and racing skills in preparation for Olympic settings.
  • Train to Win (M, F 23+/-) – Hones individual training, technique and racing skills so athletes have the greatest potential to win.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Encourages individuals to remain in canoe and kayak and/or other activities, whether competitively or recreationally, for life.

Sprint Long-Term Athlete Development Model

This model:

  • Establishes a clear and consistent developmental pathway for canoe and kayak.
  • Guides the examination of the current system to indentify strengths, gaps and inconsistencies.
  • Guides coaches in planning training, racing and recovery programs that are consistent with the principles of growth and maturation.
  • Allows athletes to achieve optimal performances and encourages them to stay in the sport for life.
  • Helps Canadian paddlers perform better and more consistently at the elite level from year to year.

Check out CanoeKayak.ca's CanoeKids Coaching Resource Page. There are some great ideas for games and activities, as well as resources that can be used by all coaches for most age groups.

CanoeKayak BC: Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L) Implementation Plan
This document outlines the actions CanoeKayak BC will undertake to implement CS4L’s LTAD.

CanoeKayak Canada – canoekayak.ca

FUNdamentals: CanoeKids

Paddling is a sport that has been led by knowledgeable, competent and experienced group of professional coaches and dedicated volunteers. These people have achieved success in the sustained development of athletes throughout all stages of the athlete development model. To ensure that CanoeKayak Canada continues to be successful, we have developed a Long-Term Athlete Development model that will help align all aspects of paddling across Canada.

Along with teamwork, paddling teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Canoe and Kayak's Whitewater Long-Term Paddler Development (LTPD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Encourages children to explore fundamental movement skills and link them together into play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-12, F 6-11) – Develops a range of overall sport skills, builds water sense and safety awareness and teaches basic boat and paddle handling skills in age-appropriate sprint canoes and kayaks.
  • Developmentals (Learn to Train) (M 9-13, F 9-12) – Focuses on physiological development and technique while addressing the ABCs.
  • Transformation (Train to Train) (M 12-17+/-, F 11-16+/-) – Refines and consolidates paddling skills and develops sport-specific physiological components while introducing race.
  • Pursuit of Excellence (Train to Compete) (M 16-23+/-, F 15-23+/-) – Further develops and refines both physiological components and racing skills in preparation for Olympic settings.
  • Train to Win (M, F 20+/-) – Hones individual training, technique and racing skills so athletes have the greatest potential to win.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Encourages individuals to remain in canoe and kayak and/or other activities, whether competitively or recreationally, for life.

Whitewater Long-Term Paddler Development Model

This model:

  • Establishes a clear and consistent developmental pathway for canoe and kayak.
  • Guides the examination of the current system to indentify strengths, gaps and inconsistencies.
  • Guides coaches in planning training, racing and recovery programs that are consistent with the principles of growth and maturation.
  • Allows athletes to achieve optimal performances and encourages them to stay in the sport for life.
  • Helps Canadian paddlers perform better and more consistently at the elite level from year to year.

CanoeKayak BC: Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L) Implementation Plan
This document outlines the actions CanoeKayak BC will undertake to implement CS4L’s LTAD.

CanoeKayak Canada – canoekayak.ca

Active Start: Bunny Rabbit Program

FUNdamentals: Jack Rabbit Program

Learn to Train: Track Attack Program

Cross-country skiing is an optimal Canadian winter pastime. Roughly two million Canadians participate annually. Cross-country skiing has no limit regarding age, region, gender or conditioning level. It’s easy to learn and its benefits for health and fitness are fantastic. Regardless of whether cross-country skiers pursue competition or just personal enjoyment, each skier belongs to a “community” in which a love of the sport is the common denominator.

Along with teamwork, cross-country skiing teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Cross-country skiing’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Develops fundamental movements and links them into play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Builds all fundamental movement skills, overall motor skills and all basic cross-country ski skills.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Refines basic cross-country ski skills and further develops fundamental movement and fundamental sport skills.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Establishes an aerobic base and develops speed and strength.
  • Learn to Compete (M 16-20+/-, F 15-19+/-) – Develops aerobic capacity and power, sport-specific and individual-specific skills, and self-awareness and independence.
  • Train to Compete (M 20-23+/-, F 19-23+/-) – Optimizes fitness preparation and masters both individual and sport-specific skills
  • Train to Win (M, F 23+/-) – Maximizes preparation for high performance results.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Transitions high performance athletes into a participatory role and encourages everyone – whether competitive or recreational athletes – to remain active for life.

Cross-Country Ski: A Sport for Life
This document introduces and explains the conceptual framework for athlete development that will provide essential guidance for Cross Country Canada, its divisions, clubs and individual members as we pursue the shared vision of establishing a sport system that is in the forefront of theory and practice.

Cross-Country Ski: LTAD Poster
The framework for full sport system alignment in Canada, integrating health and education with sport and physical activity.

Cross-Country Ski: Competition Model
The alignment of a competition model with the LTAD guidelines per development stage.

Cross-Country BC: LTAD Implementation Plan
An overview of LTAD-related change within the sport.

The Bunnyrabbit Program centers on Active Start and is directed at children age five and under. Its objective is to introduce cross-country skiing and the healthy lifestyle associated with it through organized activity and active play.

Some great Bunnyrabbit programs in the Vancouver/Whistler area:
www.whistlernordics.com – Whistler, BC
www.seatoskynordics.ca – Whistler, BC
www.hollyburnxc.ca – North Vancouver, BC

The Jackrabbit Program focuses on the FUNdamentals and is directed at children between the ages of six and nine. Its objective is to teach children basic cross-country ski skills (both classic and skating) and to instill a lifelong interest in the sport.

Some great Jackrabbit programs in the Vancouver/Whistler area:
www.whistlernordics.com – Whistler, BC
www.seatoskynordics.ca – Whistler, BC
www.spudvalleynordics.com – Pemberton, BC
www.hollyburnxc.ca – North Vancouver, BC

The Track Attack Program addresses the Learn to Train stage and aims at skiers between the ages of 10 and 12. The objective is for the participants to become technically competent cross-country skiers and to utilize those skills to explore a wide range of cross-country ski activities, from backcountry excursions to ski tournaments.

Some great Track Attack programs in the Vancouver/Whistler area:
www.whistlernordics.com – Whistler, BC
www.seatoskynordics.ca – Whistler, BC
www.hollyburnxc.ca – North Vancouver, BC

Cross-Country Ski Canada – cccski.com

FUNdamentals: Rock and Rings

Learn to Train: Rock and Rings

Curling is one of the oldest sports in Canada, and one of the sports our country is known for. We have a long history of competitive achievement as well as recreational involvement in the game. Curling has been a leader in attracting and retaining recreational sport participants. Now is an exciting time to be involved in the sport, as we are experiencing a surge in demand for both high performance training opportunities and entry-level skill development programs.

Along with teamwork, curling teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Curling’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Encourages children to explore fundamental movement skills as a daily routine in fun environments.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Teaches overall movement skills with an emphasis on FUN.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Focuses on overall sport skill development and integrates mental, cognitive and emotional development.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Develops specific sport-specific skills and begins addressing proper fitness and training.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-23+/-, F 15-21+/-) – Begins specialization through sport, event and position-specific physical conditioning.
  • Train to Win (M, 19+/-, F 18+/-) – Maximizes technical, tactical and playing skills and engages in the highest levels of competition.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Encourages individuals to remain active through curling, whether competitively or recreationally, for life.

Curling for Life
This model identifies the optimal training, competition and recovery principles and practices for our athletes through sequential stages from childhood through to adulthood, recognizing both the elite competitive and lifetime recreational streams.

Tim Horton’s Little Rocks include the FUNdamentals and Learn to Train stages, and is designed to introduce the Olympic sport of curling to elementary school children aged six to 12.

Getting Started in Curling focuses on the Train to Train stage and helps the teacher guide students aged 12 to 15 through various activities that take place in the classroom, the gymnasium and, finally, the curling rink.

High School Curling Academy centers on the Train to Compete stage and helps bring the sport of curling into mainstream education for youth aged 15 to 17.

La Releve focuses on the Train to Win stage. It identifies individual elite athletes under the age of 32 and provides high performance support and services.

The National Team Program’s aim is the Train to Win stage. It identifies our top six men’s and top six women’s teams nationally and provides high performance support and services.

Getting Started for Adults is a comprehensive curling club program that focuses on Active for Life and builds membership through superior customer service.

Rocks & Rings is a program developed for schools to help promote awareness and an enjoyable experience for new curlers.

Canadian Curling Association – curling.ca

Active Start: Learn to Ride

FUNdamentals: Learn to Ride

Learn to Train: Kids CAN-BIKE

Cycling is one of the world’s great activities. Whether for transportation, recreation or competitive sport; as BMX, Road, Mountain Bike or Track; whether for able-bodied or Paracycling athletes – cycling is participated in and loved by millions around the world.

Along with teamwork, cycling teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Cycling’ Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of nine stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6 / 0 sport years) – Encourages fundamental movement skills through fun and games.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8 / 0-3 sport years) – Introduces and develops basic cycling skills and fundamental movement skills.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11 / 1-5 sport years) – Develops fundamental sport skills and refines basic cycling skills.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15 / 3-6 sport years) – Begins developing specific sport skills and introduces racing.
  • Learn to Compete (M 16-18+/-, F 15-17+/- / 4-8 sport years) – Consolidates skills and develops further physiological components with an eye to proper training and competing practices.
  • Train to Compete (M 18-21+/-, F 17-21+/- / 6+ sport years) – Refines physical, mental, tactical and technical skills while preparing for a career in cycling.
  • Learn to Win (M, F 19-23+/- / 8+ sport years) – Maximizes all capabilities and lifestyle components for high-performance success and consistency.
  • Train to Win (M, F 23-25+/- / 10+ sport years) – Perfects skills and preparation for competition at the highest levels.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages physical activity and sport involvement, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

Cycling LTAD Model
This document is based on an extensive process of analysis and designed to give the best opportunities to all cyclists, whatever their goals or stages of development.

Mountain Bike LTAD
This document is a guide to MTB based on principles of Long-Term Athlete Development, and informed by our work on Gold Medal Profile for MTB. Along with all Canadian sport organizations, Cycling Canada has adopted the Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model as its framework for athlete and sport development. LTAD is based on sport science research combined with the practical experience of working with thousands of athletes and coaches to develop a comprehensive set of principles for effective athlete development.

Para-Cycling LTAD
This guide presents an outline for athlete development and lists recommendations for the cycling sport system to support athlete development. This document focuses on the particular needs of athletes with an impairment in cycling.

Para-Cycling Event Integration
This document complements the Para-cycling LTAD and concentrates on issues regarding cycling for athletes with disabilities.

BMX-Specific LTAD
This material outlines how to win in both kinds of BMX – “BMX for Fun and Skill” and “BMX for Performance”.

BMX-Specific LTAD Brochure
Outlines BMX’s LTAD pathway.

Track-Specific LTAD
Outlines Track-Specific LTAD pathway.

CanBike is a program designed for the more than 14 million Canadians who ride bicycles. Through a series of courses, participants learn about all aspects of cycling safely and enjoyably on the road.

The Let’s Ride! Community Cycling Initiation is for novice, pre-competitive cyclists at the community level, including participants in the Active Start, FUNdamentals and early Learn to Train stages of athlete development. The program is simple, based on a number of pre-designed lesson plans, and adaptable to the varying skill and ability levels of participants.

Cycling Canada – cyclingcanada.ca

Learn to Train: 6-A-SIDE Football

The origins of “North American” style football date back to 1874 when Montreal’s McGill University played Cambridge’s Harvard University in a three-game series. Football has evolved significantly since then, and both Canada and the United States have derived their own sets of rules. The sport is now played in more than 50 countries spanning six continents, and continues to grow in Canada.

Along with teamwork, football teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Football’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of nine stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Teaches fundamental movement skills through physical activity and play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Promotes development of ABCs and mastering of fundamental movement skills through participation in a wide range of sports.
  • Learn to Train (M 10-12, F 9-11) – Develops speed, power and endurance while focusing on fundamental sport skills.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Integrates a full range of skills through advanced situational game play.
  • Learn to Compete (M 16-18, F 15-17) – Utilizes developing mental skills to understand and read the game.
  • Train to Compete (M, F 17+) – Combines specific skills, position play and training for high-performance athletes.
  • Learn to Win (M, F 18+) – Focuses on position specialization through refinement of all skills, in the hopes of playing at the professional level.
  • Train to Win (M 21+) – Maximizes skills and capacities in preparation for professional and national competition.
  • Football for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages players to remain in the game, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

Football for Life: LTAD
The blueprint for athlete and football development throughout the nation.

The 6-A-Side football program promotes the FUNdamentals. Football Canada, in partnership with the Canadian Football League, promotes "Half the number of players – Twice the athlete!"

Football Canada – footballcanada.com

FUNdamentals: Jumps and Bumps

Learn to Train: Freestylerz

Organized freestyle skiing in Canada took shape in 1974. Shortly thereafter, the Canadian Ski Association adopted Freestyle as one of its member disciplines. Freestyle made its Olympic debut in 1988, which lead to widespread attention and phenomenal growth in the sport across Canada. Since then, we have been a leader in Freestyle competitions around the world.

Freestyle skiing teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Freestyle skiing’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Teaches fundamental movement skills and encourages children to learn to play on skis.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Develops overall movement skills and basic Freestyle ski skills.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Introduces general ski fitness and refines basic skiing skills, coinciding with peak motor coordination.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Builds an aerobic base and develops speed and strength while consolidating basic freestyle skills, discipline-specific skills and annual training programs.
  • Learn/Train to Compete (M 17-19/19-21, F 16-18/18-20) – Optimizes fitness preparation, specializes in one freestyle ski discipline, acquires discipline-specific skills and prepares for competition.
  • Learn/Train to Win (M, F 20+/22+) – Teaches high performance athletes to perform on demand and produce podium performances.
  • Ski for Life (M, F any age) – Maintains enjoyment of physical activity and continued participation in skiing, whether competitively or recreationally.

Introduction to LTAD for Canadian Freestyle Ski Association
This model provides a consistent and systematic guide to developing junior talent and increasing the number of people entering the sport of freestyle skiing.

BC Freestyle Ski Association: BC Sport for Life Project
The intent of this document is to clearly lay out a strategy that BC Freestyle Ski Association will follow to take steps towards implementing the CFSA LTAD plan.

Snow Stars Skill Development Program
Snow Stars is a skill-development tool for young skiers operated by Alpine Canada since 2004.

This seven-step program will guide the child, coach and parent through a progression that is aligned with the Long Term Athlete Development Plan (AIM 2 WIN).

Download the Snow Stars Manual

The Jumps and Bumps Program teaches young skiers FUNdamental freestyle skills in fun and safe progressions.

Freestylerz addresses the Learn to Train stage through a progression to more advanced skills in moguls, slopestyle (terrain park) and halfpipe.

Canadian Freestyle Ski Association – freestyleski.ca

FUNdamentals: Get Active! Goalball

Learn to Train: Get Active! Goalball

Goalball was invented in 1946 in an effort to rehabilitate veteran of World War Two who had lost their sight. The sport was introduced to the Paralympics at the 1976 Games in Toronto, and has been in every Paralympic Games since. Goalball has grown in popularity over the years and now there are many regional, national and international Goalball tournaments throughout the world.

Along with teamwork, Goalball teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Goalball Long-Term Athlete Development Model

Canadian Blind Sports Association – canadianblindsports.ca

Active Start: CN Future Links & Golf in Schools

FUNdamentals: CN Future Links & Golf in Schools

Learn to Train: CN Future Links & Golf in Schools

Through its Long-Term Player Development Guide, Golf Canada aims to maximize the potential of Canadian golfers and to increase the number of people participating in the sport of golf from “cradle to grave”. In order to be aware of how our best amateur players compare to world class competition, Golf Canada has revamped its approach toward key initiatives that will best support our golfers as they strive to be the best amateur players in the world.

Golf teaches participants fundamental movement skills and fundamental sport skills, as well as balance, coordination and mental focus.

Golf’s Long-Term Player Development (LTPD) model consists of nine stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Teaches fundamental movement skills and links them together into play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Addresses all fundamental movement skills and overall motor skills.
  • Learn to Play (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Develops all fundamental movement skills, golf fundamental movement skills and teaches general overall sports skills.
  • Train to Play (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Ensures children can cope with the physical and mental challenges of competition.
  • Learn to Compete (M 16-18, F 15-17) – Optimizes fitness preparation and specific skills as well as overall performance.
  • Train to Compete (M 18-23+, F 17-23+) – Fine tunes the overall golf-specific skill set, optimizes fitness preparation and develops information processing skills.
  • Train to Excel (M 23-29, F 23-28) – Achieves pre-established targets at the amateur or professional level through a high degree of excellence and knowledge in every required skill set.
  • Excel (M, F 23+) – Becomes an elite player at either the amateur or professional level.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages players to remain physically active, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

Long-Term Player Development Guide – version 2.0
This model provides a solid framework and outlines the roles and responsibilities of everyone involved in the sport.

The National Golf in Schools Program covers the FUNdamentals and delivers physical education learning outcomes through the sport of golf.

The CN Future Links Learn to Play Program addresses the FUNdamentalsTrain to Train and Train to Compete stages. This seven-level instructional program that gives you the chance to learn to play golf, keep track of your improvement and have fun.

The CN Future Links Girls’ Club focuses on the FUNdamentalsTrain to Train and Train to Compete stages. It is a developmental golf program essentially designed for girls between the ages of seven and 18.

Golf Canada – golfcanada.ca

FUNdamentals: CANGYM

Learn to Train: CANGYM

Gymnastics consists of more than what you see at the Olympics. Elite gymnasts are one part of the overall gymnastics family to which many belong. Of the six individual disciplines within the sport, each offers opportunities for fun, participation, learning and competition for everyone, regardless of age, gender or ability.

Gymnastics is made up of six disciplines:

  • Men’s Artistic
  • Women’s Artistic
  • Rhythmic Gymnastics
  • Trampoline and Tumbling
  • Aerobic
  • Acrobatic

Gymnastics’ Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Establishes play and games that foster repetitive rehearsal and learning as well as the foundations for the ABCs.
  • Fun, Fitness and Fundamental Movement Patterns (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Builds gym-specific skills through fun activities and games.
  • Build the Skills of Gymnastics (M 9-10, F 7-9) – Ensures proper progressions by matching drills with skills and fitness level.
  • Specialization in a Gym Discipline (M 10-12, F 9-11) – Introduces complex gymnastics skills, ensures physical preparation and establishes cognitive development.
  • Become a Consistent Competitor (M 12-15+, F 10-13+) – Develops advanced skills early in the stage, before the growth spurt, and continues to address other skills and capacities.
  • Win at All Levels (M 15-18+, F 13-18+) – Refines routine skills and consolidates and increases the variety of elements and artistry.
  • International Excellence and Podium Performances (M 18+, F 16+) – Retains total command of the routine and maintains all physical attributes.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Encourages individuals to remain physically active, whether in a competitive or recreational capacity, for life.

LTAD: The Ultimate Human Movement Experience
This document sets out a framework for LTAD in gymnastics that also reinforces Gymnastics Canada’s stated vision, mission and goals.

Gymnastics BC: LTAD Implementation Plan
This model outlines the steps necessary for establishing LTAD within Gymnastics in British Columbia.

The CANGYM program includes three levels (Bronze, Silver & Gold) of skill progressions based on Gymnastics Canada’s Fun, Fitness and FUNdamentals Educational Philosophy, which helps to create a friendly and stimulating environment for all participants.

Gymnastics Canada – gymcan.org

Active Start: Minor Hockey

FUNdamentals: Skills Development Camp

Learn to Train: Skills Development Camp

Canadians have been playing hockey for well over 100 years. As a result, Canada has one of the world’s foremost hockey programs. As Hockey Canada strives to become the leading hockey organization in the world, Canadian hockey players continue to have access to exemplary programs. This gives these athletes the chance to achieve performance excellence, to uphold the tradition of the game and to develop into productive Canadians.

Along with teamwork, hockey teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Hockey’s Long-Term Player Development (LTPD) model consists of eight stages.

  • Discovery (M, F 0-4) – Nurtures those fundamental movement skills that children need for a physically active lifestyle.
  • FUNdamentals (M, F 5-8) – Develops the movement skills and coordination that promote physical literacy.
  • Learn to Play – Focuses on developing the fine motor skills on an individual technical skill basis that are later used in individual and team tactics.
  • Learn to Train (M 11-12, F 10-11) – Utilizes players’ accelerated adaptation to motor coordination.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Builds an aerobic base, develops speed and strength and further develops sport specific technical skills.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-17, F 16-18) – Addresses position specific technical and tactical preparation, while incorporating fitness and competition situations.
  • Train to Win (M 18-20, F 18-22) – Maximizes players’ performances by pushing their physical, technical, tactical, mental, personal and lifestyle capabilities.
  • Excel (M 21+, F 22+) – Prepares players for competition at the highest level by fully maximizing and refining all of their physiological and preparatory systems.

Hockey Canada’s LTPD Plan: Hockey for Life, Hockey for Excellence
This model is based on the physical, mental, emotional and cognitive development of children and adolescents as they progress through hockey.

LTPD Material
Information to help parents, coaches and administrators develop the best program possible for the players involved.

The Initiation Program focuses on the early stages of Active Start and FUNdamentals. This introductory program is aimed at players aged five to six, and their coaches.

The Hockey Canada Skills Development Camps address the Train to Train, Learn to Compete and Train to Compete stages. These camps provide players the opportunity to enhance their fundamental skills in a positive, learning environment.

Hockey Canada - hockeycanada.ca

Judo is practiced by more than 100 million people in more than 200 countries worldwide. It’s popularity stems from the fact it:

  • Can be enjoyed by males and females
  • Develops athletic skills and physical literacy, as well as complex movement patterns and tactics
  • Offers avenues of philosophical exploration through its Japanese origins
  • Teaches self defense and conflict management skills
  • Can be pursued toward Olympic glory.
  • Teaches Partnership and Respect because no progress in judo is possible without partners help and cooperation

Judo teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Active Start: U7

FUNdamentals: U9

Learn to Train: U11

Judo’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (Age Under-7) – Focuses on daily physical activity in unstructured and semi-structured environments emphasizing basic movement skills.
  • FUNdamentals (U9) – Builds the ABCs in a fun, participatory environment while encouraging the development of the basic movement skills and general development that lead to physical literacy.
  • Learn to Train (U11, U13) – Begins integration of physical, emotional, cognitive and affective development with an emphasis on skill development.
  • Train to Train (U15) – Consists of sport-specific skill development with emphasis on aerobic and strength capacities.
  • Train to Compete (U17, U20) – Emphasizes sport-specific technical, tactical and fitness preparation.
  • Train to Win (18+/-) – Maximizes all physical, mental, emotional and ancillaries capabilities with the aim of succeeding competitively on the international stage.
  • Active for Life (any age) – Transitions high performance athletes into a participatory role and encourages everyone – whether competitive or recreational athletes – to remain active for life.

Taking it to the Mat: Judo LTAD
The Judo Canada LTAD model is a comprehensive document designed to provide the Canadian Judo community with a blueprint to facilitate options for development and life-long participation in the sport of judo.

Judo Canada: Tournament Policy
The purpose of this document is to standardize the operation of judo tournaments and other judo events in Canada.

The U7 Active Start Judo Program is oriented towards beginner judokas between four and six years of age. For children this young, judo exercises are used as tools in development of athletic abilities. Learning judo techniques cannot be the priority of the program.

The U9 FUNdamentals Sport Program focuses on just that – FUNdamentals – and is for seven- and eight-year-old children, who require an individual approach to sports programs.

The U11 & U13 Learn to Train Program pays particular attention to the individual athlete’s needs, as this phase is one of the most important periods for the young athlete’s development.

Find your Provincial Judo Federation off Judo Canada's Provincial Judo Associations page.

Judo Canada – judocanada.org

Active Start: Lacrosse FITS

FUNdamentals: Lacrosse FITS

Learn to Train: Lacrosse FITS

Lacrosse is a distinctly Canadian sport. Although its inception is surrounded by myth, this game began with the First Nations people. Originally, lacrosse was characterized by a deeply spiritual involvement, and those who took part did so with the highest ideals of bringing glory to themselves and their tribes. Today, lacrosse has four disciplines – Box, Men's Field, Women's Field, and Inter-Lacrosse – and has evolved from a spiritual game of our First Nations into the exciting, thriving sport played across our country.

Along with teamwork, lacrosse teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Lacrosse’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Teaches fundamental movement skills and basic rules, and links them together into play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-10, F 6-7) – Introduces skills and the ABCs through physical activity.
  • Learn to Train (M 10-12, F 8-10) – Addresses more advanced skills, tactics and mental preparation and introduces competition.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-14) – Continues to develop skills and physiological capacities through increased competition, with effort spent on talent identification.
  • Learn &Train to Compete (M 16-23+/-, F 15-21+/-) – Optimizes fitness preparation, further develops skills and tactics, and begins specialization in the sport through year-round physical training.
  • Learn & Train to Win (M, F 17+/-) – Maximizes performance by consolidating and perfecting all skills and capacities, while performing to win.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages all individuals to remain physically active, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

Lacrosse for Life: Overview
The aim of this LTAD model is to promote the development and continued success of our sport in Canada by creating an optimal player development pathway. Three of the disciplines have Lacrosse for Life documents:

Drill and Skill Cards
This reference guide explains various drills and skills used in lacrosse.

The Fun with Fundamentals three-part DVD series, a learning device focused on teaching the FUNdamentals, is a must-have for anyone who is serious about Canada's national summer sport. The series can be purchased through the CLA or individual PSOs.

Beginning in fall 2011, Lacrosse will have a six-module FUNdamentals program for elementary schools called Lacrosse FITS. It will consist of 10 lesson plans for each module that can be taught during Phys Ed to children in grades one through six.

Canadian Lacrosse Association – lacrosse.ca

Racquetball is a relatively new sport, and due to its short history has a limited base of accumulated scientific knowledge and theory to guide the training and development of the sport and its athletes. That said, Canadian racquetball has had some success at the local, national and international levels. Through the implementation of its Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model, Racquetball Canada intends on improving all aspects of the sport across the country.

Racquetball teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

FUNdamentals: Let's Play Racquetball

Racquetball’s LTAD model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Introduces fundamental movement skills through physical activity and play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Develops and builds fundamental movement skills.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Teaches overall sport skills.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Builds an aerobic base, develops speed and strength, and further develops and consolidates sport specific skills.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-23, F 15-21) – Optimizes the “engine” and prepares athletes for competition.
  • Learn to Win (M 19+, F 18+) – Produces podium performances at national and international amateur events.
  • Train to Win (M 19+, F 18+) – Reaches the podium at all levels of international competition, at both the amateur and professional level.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages players to remain in the game, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

LTAD Plan
This model explains how best to use the 10,000 hours depending on the athlete’s age and stage, providing guidance on what and when to train.

Racquetball Canada – racquetball.ca

FUNdamentals: ABC Program

Ringette is a Canadian invention that has become one of the fastest team sports on ice. When it was created in 1963, ringette was a sport for girls. While it’s still primarily a female sport – with more than 27,000 registered players on roughly 2000 teams – no less than 600 males now play across the country. Ringette is featured in a number of countries around the world. The annual World Ringette Championship has been around since 1990, of which Canada is a predominant challenger.

Along with teamwork, ringette teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Ringette’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Initiates all fundamental movement skills and develops physical literacy.
  • FUNdamentals (M, F 6-8) – Continues to develop the components of physical literacy – fundamental movement and motor skills – while introducing fundamental ringette skills.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-10, F 8-9) – Develops fundamental ringette skills and introduces tactics and mental skills.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Introduces advanced ringette skills in controlled and semi-controlled situations.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-23, F 15-21) – Consolidates all ringette skills and tactics, while optimizing general physical fitness training and decision-making skills.
  • Learn to Win (M 19+, F 18+) – Establishes players within a high performance environment and consolidates all position-specific skills and mental and physical training.
  • Compete to Win (M 19+, F 18+) – Maximizes all aspects of ringette preparation to ensure high-level athletes are ready to achieve international success on the Canadian team.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages players to remain in the game, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

LTAD: Framework Document
This material sets out a framework for LTAD that will ensure programs and structures meet the developmental needs of participants in each stage.

Ringette ABC Program - The complete guide to the Ringette ABC program. Includes program guidelines, forms and guiding principles.

BC Implementation Plan
Outlines the pathway athletes can follow from the community level to high performance.

BC Implementation Framework
Provides framework for ringette competition across ages and divisions.

As part of our LTAD initiatives, Ringette Canada has developed a series of videos to help coaches and athletes understand the FUNdamental skills of our sport.

Ringette Canada – ringette.ca

FUNdamentals: irow

Learn to Train: irow

Rowers tend to be passionate about their sport. The sensation of being able to propel a boat at speed through the water under one’s own power is exhilarating. It requires teamwork and concentration so that one is almost oblivious to the physical exertion employed. Rowing is a sport that can be enjoyed by all. Canadian rowers have excelled on the world stage and Canada is considered a strong rowing nation.

Along with teamwork, rowing teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Rowing’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Teaches fundamental movements and links them together into play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Introduces fundamental movement skills and builds overall motor skills.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Establishes overall sport skills as well as water-sense and basic boat handling skills.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Builds general endurance, speed and strength while learning to scull.
  • Learn to Compete (M, F 15-19+/-) – Refines and consolidates sculling skills, teaches sweeping and develops sport-specific capacities.
  • Train to Compete (M, F 19-23+/-) – Continues to develop and refine sport-specific capacities and racing skills, including mental preparation and race strategies.
  • Train to Win (M, F 23+) – Fine tunes training, technique and racing skills so athletes are as fast as they can be at the highest levels of competition.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages players to remain active through rowing, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

LTAD Plan for Rowing
This document provides a consistent framework from which coaches, club administrators, provincial rowing associations and Rowing Canada Aviron can work.

LTAD Competition Review
Recommendations for the “competition system” that address race types, boat classes, progression and the annual competition schedule, all aimed at effectively developing athletes at each stage of development.

The irow Program features the Learn to Train and Train to Train stages. This Youth Rowing program, offered by Rowing Canada Aviron and Sport Canada, focuses on communicating the values of our sport, involving all youth, and engaging students in a fun and rewarding rowing experience.

The new Skills Event initiative is a result of RCA’s Competition Review, emphasizing the importance of rowing skills that need to be taught and practiced during the Learn to Train stage and perfected in the Train to Train stage.

Rowing Canada Aviron – rowingcanada.org

Active Start: CANSail Dinghy - Wet Feet

FUNdamentals: CANSail Dinghy - CANSail

Learn to Train: CANSail Dinghy - CANSail

Since 1931, the Canadian Yachting Association has governed the sport of sailing within our country. Through collaboration with its partners, the CYA has helped countless Canadians get involved with sailing. Children are introduced to the sport through learn-to-sail programs at their local clubs. Adults participate in learn-to-sail programs with specific instruction. Sailors with disabilities gain experience through individualized, Able-Sail programs.

Along with teamwork, sailing teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Sailing’s Long-Term Sailor Development (LTSD) model consists of nine stages.

  • Active Start & Awareness (M, F 0-6) – Introduces FUN and SAFE play on and in the water as part of daily physical activity.
  • FUNdamentals & Point of First Contact (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Teaches boat propulsion and steering, water safety and seamanship, athletic abilities and FUN – all through sailing activities.
  • Learn to Sail Fast! (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Establishes boat handling and propulsion skills in various wind conditions, and introduces rules and fundamental racing skills.
  • Learn to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Refines sailing and racing skills in larger single-handed boats, double-handed boats and boards.
  • Learn to Compete (M 16-20+/-, F 15-19+/-) – Transitions to Olympic and Paralympic classes through refinement of all advanced skills.
  • Train to Compete (M, F 17+/-) – Develops annual and multi-year campaigns with training focused on best ever performances at major events.
  • Train to Win (M, F 20+/-) – Incorporates multi-year campaigns with training and racing focused on top-ranked performances at major events.
  • Win for a Living (M, F 20+/-) – Employs full-time racing campaigns with consistent medal performances at all major events.
  • Sail for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages individuals to remain physically active and involved in the sport, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

LTSD Model
The purpose of this document is to advance the sport of sailing and to ensure that all participants develop into healthy and active individuals.

Wet Feet is an Active Start program aimed at young children five and six years of age who want to learn about sailing and water safety.  The goal of this program is to get children comfortable in small boats and introduce them to basic sailing concepts.

Sail Canada – sailing.ca

Learn to Train: RTS Program & Crosman Air Gun Shooting Program & Postal Program

The Shooting Federation of Canada (SFC) is the national sport governing body responsible for the promotion, development and governing of organized, recreational and competitive target shooting in and for Canada. SFC represents all Canadian firearm owners and is also responsible for the development, protection and promotion of all firearm owners' rights, property and their sport.

Shooting teaches participants fundamental movement skills and fundamental sport skills, as well as balance, coordination and accuracy.

LTAD Target Shooting: a lifetime sport

The Recreational Target Shooting (RTS) program aim at the Learn to Train and Active for life stages, and is for any individual and/or club just getting into target shooting. An SFC membership is not required. You can shoot on any indoor or outdoor range, or in any safe location that has an appropriate back stop or bullet trap.

The Crossman Air Gun Shooting Program focuses on the Learn to Train and Active for Life stages, and is for all airgun-shooting enthusiasts. You can shoot on any range with at least a 10-meter distance for shooting. Just make sure it's a safe location where you can put up a Crossman Air Gun Shooting Program target. Interested groups should contact their local SFC club and/or members for technical support.

The Postal Program addresses the Learn to Train and Active for Life stages, and is a great way to get your first taste of competition. The mail in, or postal match, works on the honour system: you shoot your targets according to the rules, have someone witness them, and mail in your scores. It's a great way to keep your competitive fires burning, especially during the cold winter months when there are fewer matches.

Shooting Federation of Canada – sfc-ftc.ca

Active Start: CanSkate

FUNdamentals: CanSkate

Learn to Train: STARSkate

Skating is considered an integral part of Canadian sport culture, and can act as a source of national pride when athletes excel at the international, world and Olympic levels. Yet skating also provides the opportunity for Canadians to achieve better health and well-being, to learn sport-specific skills, to develop or enhance life skills, and to build and foster relationships with others.

Along with teamwork, figure skating teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Figure skating’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of six stages.

  • Learn to Skate (M 3-9, F 3-8) – Covers Active Start and FUNdamentals by providing opportunities for all Canadians to learn to skate in fun, safe and engaging environments.
  • Learn to Train (M 8-12, F 7-11) – Builds a skill set that will allow children to reach the highest level of proficiency that their unique talent and commitment will allow.
  • Learn to Compete (M 10-14, F 9-13) – Exposes athletes to greater performance and competition opportunities, with the competition focused on performance and not solely on results.
  • Train to Compete (M 11-17, F 10-16) – Emphasizes the pursuit of excellence at the national level through refinement and consolidation of skills.
  • Learn/Live to Win (M 14-21, F 13-19 – 15+) – Ensures athletes are fully prepared (physically, mentally, technically and strategically) with the confidence and attitude that they can win at the highest levels of international competition.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Provides the opportunity for lifelong participation in skating, in either a competitive or recreational capacity.

In Pursuit of Personal Excellence: Skate Canada’s Guide to LTAD
This model defines the optimal training, competition and recovery programs necessary to succeed in the sport of figure skating.

CanSkate is Skate Canada's flagship Learn to Skate program. It addresses the Active StartFUNdamentals and Active for Life stages, and is designed for beginners of all ages. CanSkate programs focus on fun, participation and basic skill development.

CanPowerSkate, focusing on the Learn to Skate stage, is an action-packed, high energy instructional power skating program geared toward hockey and ringette skaters. It focuses on balance, power, agility, speed and endurance.

STARSkate consists of Skills, Tests, Achievement and Recognition, and centers on the Learn to Train stage. It offers opportunities for skaters of all ages to develop fundamental figure skating skills in the areas of ice dance, skating skills, free skate and interpretive skating.

The CompetitiveSkate Test Program addresses the Learn to CompeteTrain to Compete and Learn/Live to Win stages. It is a testing program for skaters in singles, pairs and dance who wish to compete in qualifying events within Skate Canada.

CollegiateSkate centers on Active for Life. Schools are getting into the competitive spirit through the CollegiateSkate program, which brings together skaters from different test and/or competitive backgrounds to skate together as a team representing their school.

AdultSkate covers Active for Life. Adult skating is growing in popularity and more clubs are offering recreational, test and competitive opportunities to this segment of the population.

Skate Canada – skatecanada.ca

Learn to Train: Canada Snowboard Riders

Snowboarding has outgrown its “new kid on the block” image with three consecutive Olympic appearances, but the sport continues to attract a reputation as the most dynamic, progressive and influential of winter sports. Around since 1991, the Canadian Snowboard Federation continues to develop and improve, progressing with the changing needs of Canadian athletes who compete from grassroots to the international level.

Snowboarding consists of three disciplines, Alpine (PGS), Snowboard-cross (SBX) and Half-pipe (HP). The sport teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Snowboard’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Establishes fundamental movement skills through physical activity and play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Develops physical literacy and fundamental sport skills in a fun and positive social environment.
  • Learn to Ride (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Introduces all three Olympic disciplines to ensure holistic skill development.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Forms good training habits on and off the snow, and emphasizes strength and fitness conditioning.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-19, F 15-18 PGS and SBX; M 15-18, F 14-17 HP) – Increases training volume and intensity, and ensures access to competitions.
  • Learn to Win (M 19-25, F 18-24 PGS; M 19-24, F 18-23 SBX; M 18-21, F 17-20 HP) – Transitions between national- and international-level podiums, and is the final stage of athletic preparation.
  • Train to Win (M 25+, F 24+ PGS; M 24+, F 23+ SBX; M 21+, F 20+ HP) – Optimizes preparation for high importance competitions while composing and designing new movements.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages individuals to remain in the sport, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

Canada Snowboard's LTAD: Park to Podium

Vision 2020: The LTAD Plan for Snowboarding in Canada
This framework encompasses every element of snowboarding, with the rider as the central focus. It seeks to enable Canadians to step regularly on top of international podiums.

BC Snowboard Association: Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L) Implementation Plan
Explains how BC Snowboard will provide programs and support to BC athletes to achieve growth within snowboarding.

C~S Riders centers on the Learn to Train stage by introducing participants to competitive snowboarding through either a slopestyle or snowboardcross type of event.

Slopestyle athletes make their way down, through and over a course comprised of a variety of obstacles including rails, jumps and other terrain park features -- scoring points for amplitude, originality and quality of tricks. The discipline has its roots in action sports like skateboarding and BMX biking and has very successfully crossed over into the snow sports worlds of skiing and snowboard.

Parallel Slalom (PSL) is a similar snowboard discipline as Parallel Giant Slalom (PGS) already presented at the Olympic Games, but athletes ride a smaller, tighter course. The new Olympic discipline does not require any additional athlete as the alpine snowboarders traditionally compete in both the PGS and the PSL.

Canadian Snowboard Federation – canadasnowboard.ca

Active Start: Active Start Soccer Fests

FUNdamentals: Active Start Soccer Fests

Learn to Train: Chvrolet Soccer Skills Program

Soccer is the largest participation sport in Canada and the world, providing healthy physical activity for players at all levels of ability. At the most basic level of participation, soccer enhances the well-being of individuals across the nation; at the high performance level, soccer is a vehicle for elite athlete achievement and hailed internationally as “The Beautiful Game”.

Along with teamwork, soccer teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Soccer’s Long-Term Player Development (LTPD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F Under-4 to Under-6) – Encourages children to move and have fun.
  • FUNdamentals (M U6-U9, F U6-U8) – Teaches kids fundamental movement and soccer skills while maintaining an emphasis on FUN.
  • Learn to Train (M U9-12, F U8-U11) – Begins developing soccer skills and speed.
  • Train to Train (M U12-16, F U11-15) – Builds physical capacities and tactical knowledge for early- to mid-teenage athletes, with an eye for identifying the elite player.
  • Train to Compete (M U16-19, F U15-18) – Refines skills and position-specific physical and mental training for the mid- to late-teenage athletes, with the goal of developing the international player.
  • Train to Win (M 19+, F 18+) – Perfects performance for athletes striving to become a World Cup player.
  • Active for Life (M, F 12+) – Encourages players to stay in the game, whether competitively or recreationally, for life.

Wellness to the World Cup: LTPD
The Canadian Soccer LTPD model, Wellness to World Cup, is designed to optimize Canadian excellence and lifelong wellness through soccer.

Canada Soccer Pathway
A roadmap of the rational pathway for player development in Canada.

The Ombrelle Active Start Soccer Fest is an internationally recognized youth development program targeted at children under the age of 12. The goal of the festival program is to introduce the sport of soccer to youth through a fun-filled event for both children and their parents.

Chevrolet Soccer Skills Program is a national initiative dedicated to helping kids age 8-12 and coaches hone the basics for playing The Beautiful Game.

Canadian Soccer Association – canadasoccer.com

FUNdamentals: Learn to Play & CanPitch

Learn to Train: Learn to Play & CanPitch & Triple Play Program

The Canadian Amateur Softball Association, commonly known as Softball Canada, has been around since 1951. Softball Canada`s National Teams Program is recognized as one of the worldwide leaders in the sport of softball. Canada is considered a medal threat in all four major International categories, including Senior Women, Senior Men, Junior Women and Junior Men. And through the implementation of the Long-Term Player Development (LTAD) model, our players and teams are only going to get better.

Along with teamwork, softball teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Softball’s LTPD model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Introduces fundamental movement skills through physical activity and play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Establishes further development of fundamental movement skills and lays a general foundation of physical capacities.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Focuses on developing softball-specific skills, ensuring an appropriate level of fun.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Develops physical capacities and softball skills while adding the competitive aspects of the game.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-23+/-, F 15-21+/-) – Consolidates softball skills and further develops fitness through position-specific training.
  • Learn & Train to Win (M, F 19+) – Shifts toward true high performance, including an increased focus on individualized training and performance results at competitions.
  • Live to Win (M 23+, F 19+) – Emphasizes performance results and international excellence.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages players to remain in the game, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

LTPD Guide for Softball in Canada
This document helps to ensure that player development and program delivery are aligned across the country, at all levels, and for all ages.

LTPD Guide - One Page Brochure

The Learn to Play Program address the FUNdamentalsLearn to Train and Train to Train stages. Activities that foster the involvement of ALL players, including players with high and low skill levels, are included.

CANpitch is Softball Canada’s national pitching program and covers the FUNdamentalsLearn to TrainTrain to Train and Train to Compete stages. It provides a standardized curriculum based on Softball Canada’s LTPD framework to introduce and develop the skill of windmill pitching to children and youth.

Softball Canada – softball.ca

Active Start: Active Start

FUNdamentals: FUNdamentals

pecial Olympics Canada (SOC) is dedicated to enriching the lives of Canadians with an intellectual disability through sport. By advocating for social inclusion, SOC encourages and empowers people with intellectual disabilities, promotes acceptance for all and fosters communities of understanding and respect around the world. SOC provides quality programs and services for members and supporters, and offers athletes choices in their opportunity to train and compete.

Along with teamwork, SOC teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

SOC’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Introduces play skills through movement and daily physical activity.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Establishes physical literacy through the development of fundamental movement skills and basic sport movement skills.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Develops basic sport skills specific to two or three sports.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Builds physical capacities relating to sport-specific protocols for complementary sports.
  •  Learn to Compete (Late youth to adult) – Aims to establish the “competent competitor” within athletes.
  • Train to Compete (Early adult) – Steers athletes toward sport specialization through training and competition excellence.
  • Train to Win (Adult) – Produces podium performances and personal bests.
  • Acitve for Life (All ages) – Encourages individuals to maintain lifelong physical activity, in either a competitive or recreational capacity.

LTAD for Athletes with an Intellectual Disability
This overview describes how LTAD – a framework for developing physical literacy, physical fitness and competitive ability – applies to individuals with an intellectual ability.

Special Olympics Canada’s Active Start Program is for children aged two to six. This family-based program focuses on basic motor skill development with attention on positive movement experiences.

The FUNdamentals Program takes participant development to the next level by introducing sport skills for athletes between the ages of seven and 10 that prepare them for future sport endeavors.

Special Olympics – specialolympics.ca

Active Start: Beyond the Nick - Active Start

FUNdamentals: Beyond the Nick - FUNdamentals

Learn to Train: Beyond the Nick - Learning to Train

Squash’s popularity has been growing worldwide for the past century. Today, more than 400,000 Canadians play the sport either recreationally or competitively. And Canadian players have started to gain distinction on the international stage, too. But there’s always room for improvement. Squash Canada is striving to develop the children’s recreation market across the nation, which will in turn feed more players into our high-performance stream.

Squash teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Squash’s Long-Term Player Development (LTPD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Introduces basic physical movement and activity in play settings.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Teaches fundamental movement skills that will later form the basis for most sports skills, with an emphasis on FUN.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Transforms fundamental skills into sport-specific skills within structured training settings.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Consolidates basic sport-specific skills and moves toward specialization in one sport, though participation in at least one other sport is encouraged.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-23+, F 15-21+) – Optimizes all athletic capabilities within intense training regimens to prepare the athlete for elite competition.
  • Train to Win (M 19+/-, F 18+/-) – Establishes all capacities and maximizes performance in order to win national and international competitions.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Encourages lifelong participation, whether competitive or recreational, in physical activity and/or sport.

Beyond the Nick: Squash Canada’s LTPD model
This model identifies the basic stages in the optimal development of player, essentially from childhood to adulthood, based on physical, mental, emotional and social maturation.

Beyond the Nick - LTAD website

Squash Canada – squash.ca

 

Swimming Canada serves as the national governing body of competitive swimming. Swimming Canada’s vision of Swimming to Win; Winning for Life! reflects the lifelong attributes of the sport. Canadians are global leaders in high performance swimming and development for both able-bodied swimmers and swimmers with a disability. Swimming is recognized as one of the most celebrated and successful Canadian summer Olympic sports.

Along with teamwork, swimming teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Swimming’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Teaches fundamental movement skills and links them together into play, while providing appropriate safety skills around water.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 5-8) – Promotes overall physical development and mobility in and out of the pool.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Fine tunes movement skills and develops all swimming skills.
  • Train to Train (M 12-15, F 11-14) – Builds an aerobic base, consolidates speed, skills and flexibility, and masters sport specific skills.
  • Train to Compete (M 15-18, F 14-16) – Individualizes physical training approach, advances physical, technical and tactical skills, and introduces high levels of competition under various environments.
  • Compete to Win (M 18+, F 16+) – Optimizes approach to longer term competitive schedule and annual training plan and refines lifestyle, all with the aim of maintaining a high performance career.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Promotes lifelong physical activity, whether competitive or recreational, and encourages swimmers to pursue complimentary sport activity.

LTAD Strategy
This model focuses on the general framework of athlete development with special reference to growth, trainability, maturation and development, as well as system alignment and integration.

Parents Guide to LTAD
This document helps you understand the needs of young athletes and what may be done to promote their best interests in staying active and healthy.

I Can Swim is a dynamic learn to swim program which promotes lifelong aquatic participation. I Can Swim focuses on each swimmer’s unique needs and current developmental abilities.

Recovery and Regeneration Strategies
These strategies have a critical bearing on the developmental stages of athletic adaptations and trainability.

Swimming Canada – swimming.ca

Synchronized swimming is accessible to all Canadians. It promotes fun, fitness and allows participants to reach their own level of excellence. Synchro Canada, a volunteer-based organization, is responsible for the development, coordination and operation of the sport through a wide variety of programs. The outstanding success of Canada's national synchronized swimming teams stem from a solid membership base and the quality programming offered by Synchro Canada.

Along with teamwork, synchronized swimming teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Learn to Train: Synchro Star

Synchronized swimming’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Get wet! Introduces fundamental movement skills and links them together into play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Teaches all fundamental movement skills and builds overall motor skills.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Develops sport-specific skills.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Builds an aerobic base, develops speed and strength, and further develops and consolidates synchro-specific skills.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-23, F 15-21+) – Optimizes fitness performance and teaches athletes to compete.
  • Train for Performance (M, F 18+) – Strives for personal bests; builds podium performances at the international level.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages individuals to remain physically active, either competitively or recreationally, and involved in sport for life.

Synchro Canada’s LTAD Coaching Webtool
This new innovation will help coaches organize their practice plans and eventually their entire seasons.

Synchro Canada’s LTAD One-Page Ad
“Our athletes deserve a training and competition program designed to meet their biological and developmental needs!”

Synchro Canada’s Competitive Stream Model
Outlines the path for competitive synchronized swimmers.

Synchro Canada Recreational Stream Model
Outlines the path for recreational synchronized swimmers.

Synchro Star is a developmental skills program that covers the Learn to TrainTrain to Train and Train to Compete stages. It offers instruction in the sport of synchronized swimming, starting with basic skills and moving to more advanced techniques as swimmers progress through the levels.

Synchro Canada – synchro.ca

FUNdamentals: TOPS Table Tennis

Learn to Train: TOPS Table Tennis

During the late 1800s, table tennis – the sport formerly known as “ping pong” – sparked a craze throughout England. The sport was added to the Pan American Games in 1979 and the Olympics in 1988. Table tennis is now one of the world’s most popular sports, with roughly 200 national sport federations around the globe.

Along with partnership, table tennis teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Table tennis’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (ages 3-6) – Teaches fundamental movement skills and links them into play in a safe, stimulating and FUN environment.
  • FUNdamentals (5-9) – Develops fundamental movement skills, builds overall motor skills (ABCs) and teaches basic sport-specific skills through active participation in a fun and safe environment.
  • Learn to Train (8-12) – Introduces general physical fitness, teaches sound basic technical and tactical skills, and develops basic mental qualities.
  • Train to Train (11-15) – Raises the performance capacity, prepares to perform at identified competitions and reach a peak performance at the decisive competition(s) of the year.
  • Train to Compete (14-21) – Integrates all performance factors in a complex and harmonious blend in order to perform on a regular basis at identified major domestic and international events.
  • Learn to Win (20-25) – Consolidates all aspects of performance in order to reach a peak performance in major international events.
  • Live to Win (25+) – Refines all aspects of performance in order to reach the podium in major international events.
  • Active for Life (all ages) – Encourages players to remain physically active and in the game, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

LTAD Table Tennis 4 Life

TOPS School Program centers on the FUNdamentals.

Clubs of Excellence focuses on the Learn to Train stage.

Centers of Excellence aims at the Train to Train stage.

Centers of Excellence and Canada Cup competitions cover the Train to Compete and Train to Win stages.

Table Tennis Canada – ttcan.ca

Active Start: Le Petit Tennis

FUNdamentals: Little Aces

Learn to Train: Learn to Play

Do you remember that thrill you got the first time you hit a ball cleanly over the net?  What about that moment you actually aced an opponent with a serve that painted the line? Tennis Canada is doing everything it can so that countless Canadians can share those same feelings. Its goal is to lead the growth, promotion and showcasing of the sport of tennis in Canada, build a system that helps produce world class players, and foster the pursuit of excellence for all.

Along with teamwork, tennis teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Tennis’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Builds agility, balance and coordination through fun, physical activity, and introduces striking with a racquet.
  • FUNdamentals (M 5-9, F 5-8) – Teaches fundamental movement skills, basic tennis skills and physical literacy through Progressive Tennis and other sports.
  • Develop (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Becomes a well-rounded athlete and builds the full court tennis skills required to be a player.
  • Consolidate (M 13-15, F 12-14) – Sets the foundation for the pursuit of excellence.
  • Learn to Perform (M 16-18, F 15-16) – Consolidates all skills and prepares athletes for competition.
  • Learn to be a Professional (M 19-23, F 17-21+) – Utilizes skills, tactics and preparation in order to compete at the high performance level.
  • Live as a Professional (M 24+, F 22+) – Reaches peak performance through full-time commitment, solid and consistent preparation, individualized training programs and effective life management.
  • Tennis for Life (M, F 12+) – Encourages players to remain physically active and involved in the game, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

LTAD Plan for the Sport of Tennis in Canada
This plan provides a framework for developing physical literacy, physical fitness and competitive ability, using a stage-by-stage approach.

Tennis BC LTAD Implementation Plan
Through the systematic identification of LTAD stages Tennis BC is able to maximize the potential of development and increase the enjoyment of participants and athletes in our sport.

Tennis Canada recently launched the National Bank Little Aces program, which was designed for children ages 6 to 8. The initiative aims to improve the overall development of these children helping them access provincial and national tennis development and excellence programs.

The Rogers Rookie Tour, a national program designed to bridge the gap between entry-level tennis and the provincial competitive junior circuit, covers the FUNdamentals and Learn to Train stages.

The Tennis Canada College Program is a Train to Compete program committed to helping qualified high school student-athletes enjoy the enriching and rewarding experience of competing in their favourite sport while earning a university degree.

Tennis Canada – tenniscanada.com

Active Start: Kids of Steel

FUNdamentals: Kids of Steel

Learn to Train: Kids of Steel

Triathlon is a sport growing in popularity around the world. Race participation has increased by more than 300 per cent between 2005 and 2010. The sport has also experienced significant growth in Canada since the birth of Triathlon Canada 25 years ago. In fact, it’s now one of the nation’s most rapidly growing sports. Triathlon debuted at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia as a provisional sport and has been granted full program status for future Olympic Games.

Triathlon teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Triathlon’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of seven stages.

  • Active Start (ages 0-6) – Provides the foundation for lifelong physical activity through the acquisition of basic movement skills in fun, daily environments.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Develops and builds fundamental motor ability and physical literacy.
  • Sample (1-2 years of training) – Encourages technical mastery and the development of speed; talent detection begins.
  • Specialize (3-5) – Becomes a triathlete by choosing to train and compete; talent selection takes place.
  • Investment (6-8) – Masters self-management and achieves race consistency at the international level; talent prediction occurs.
  • Maintenance (9-10+) – Refines and maintains all skills and capacities while realizing full physical potential.
  • Active for Life (all ages) – Encourages individuals to remain physically active and involved in the sport, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

Triathlon Canada’s LTAD
This document provides a generic stage-by-stage process that considers some current knowledge on growth and development and the trainability of fundamental motor abilities.

Kids of Steel triathlons cover both the FUNdamentals and Sampling stages, and are designed to offer kids and young adults the opportunity to experience the sport of triathlon in a positive environment.

The National Junior Series focuses on the Specializing stage and provides Canada’s junior athletes with a highly competitive draft-legal racing experience

Triathlon Canada – triathloncanada.com

Active Start: Mini Volleyball

FUNdamentals: Mini Volleyball

Learn to Train: Atomic Volleyball

In Canada, the sport of volleyball is popular at all levels – from elementary school to recreational, both indoors and on the beach. Hundreds of thousands of Canadians play volleyball. But despite the large participant base, we’ve attained very little international success, either on the beach or indoors. That’s why Volleyball Canada implemented its Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model – to improve the quality of volleyball players in this country from grassroots to high performance.

Along with teamwork, volleyball teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Volleyball’s LTAD model consists of nine stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Introduces fundamental movement skills through physical activity and play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Encourages the development of fundamental movement skills through fun and participation.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Initiates overall sport skills and introduces certain volleyball skills.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Develops physical capacities and volleyball skills.
  • Learn to Compete (M 17-19+/-, F 16-18+/- indoor; M 16-20+/-, F 15-19+/- beach) – Consolidates volleyball skills and develops fitness.
  • Train to Compete (M 20-21+/-, F 19-20+/- indoor; M 18-24+/-, F 17-23+/- beach) – Refines volleyball skills and further develops fitness.
  • Learn to Win (M 20-25+/-, F 21-24+/- indoor; M 22-28+/-, F 21-27+/- beach) – Maintains volleyball skills and develops the ability to sustain high volume and high intensity training.
  • Train to Win (M 26-34+/-, F 25-32+/- indoor/beach) – Optimizes performance for peaking at selective competitive events.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages players to remain involved in the game, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

Volleyball Canada Development Model
This website gives athletes, parents, teachers and coaches easy access to apply our LTAD guidelines (training, competition and recovery amounts) and support our athletes to reach their full potential.  Click on the links below to view our guidelines for athlete development.

Volleyball for Life: LTAD for Volleyball in Canada
This systematic framework is built around developing athletes and identifying appropriate levels of competition at each stage.

Mini-Volleyball, which addresses FUNdamentals, is a discipline recognized and encouraged by the FIVB. It is THE game for children between the ages of nine and 13.

The Atomic Volleyball program centers on the Learn to Train stage and is a great tool for teaching children the basics of the sport and getting them ready for the more complex six-on-six game.

Triple Ball is a modified game of volleyball focused on the Train to Train stage and designed to help developing athletes experience success, accelerate their skill development and have fun.

The National Team Cup Challenge, aimed at the Train to Compete stage, is a summer event for 19U (men) and 18U (women) provincial teams held at the end of July. The event includes regular match play competition, triple ball competition (no specialization), skills competition and classroom sessions on sport science and other topics.

Volleyball Canada – volleyball.ca

FUNdamentals: I Love Water Polo

Learn to Train: I Love Water Polo

In 1870, the London Swimming Club established the first rules for this water-based football game. They accepted brute strength. Over time and through much trial and error, the rules and style of the game streamlined into what they are today. Water polo was initiated into the Olympics in 1900, and has been played in Canada for more than 100 years. Canada boasts strong men’s and women’s programs – both of which will benefit from Water Polo Canada’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model.

Along with teamwork, water polo teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Water polo’s LTAD model consists of eight stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Introduces fundamental movement skills through water involvement, physical activity and play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Develops and builds fundamental movement skills and basic water polo skills in well-structured and positive environments.
  • Technical Foundations (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Teaches overall sport skills while introducing decision making and basic fitness.
  • Competitive Foundations (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Establishes more advanced water polo skills and tactics, and refines basic tactical and technical knowledge.
  • Train to Compete (M 16-19+/-, F 15-18+/-) – Consolidates and refines sequence of basic water polo skills at competition intensity.
  • Train to Perform (M 19-25+/-, F 18-23+/-) – Maximizes performance in competition as athletes strive for sport excellence.
  • Live to Win (M 25+, F 23+) – Refines advanced skills, position-specific skills and strategies with the purpose of competing and succeeding at the highest levels of competition.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Encourages players to remain physically active and involved in the game, either competitively or recreationally, for life.

Water Polo Canada LTAD: The Pursuit of Excellence and an Active Lifestyle
This model provides a framework that outlines each of the developmental stages athletes pass through as they progress through the sport of water polo.

I Love Water Polo (ILWP) is directed at the FUNdamentals and Learn to Train stages. It is Water Polo Canada’s introductory, grassroots water polo program for boys and girls ages eight to 12 (although easily adaptable for younger or older age groups, or even adults). In a learn-to-play environment, similar to swimming lessons, participants discover the game of water polo, and the basic skills involved in aquatic sports.  The ILWP program also helps to enhance the participants swimming, balance, and coordination skills.

Major League Water Polo (MLWP) focuses on Active for Life’s competition stream, and was established to provide athletes and clubs with competitive water polo opportunities outside of the National Team and excellence stream.  MLWP targets male and female athletes aged 18 and over.

The Canadian Select League (CSL), which addresses the Train to Compete and Train to Perform stages, was established to provide high performance competition to the female excellence stream of athletes aged 16 and older.

The primary focus of the National Development Premier League (NDPL) is to increase the number of high performance athletes (16-18 years old) and their readiness as they enter the Train to Perform stage of development – therefore increasing the number of eligible athletes for National Team programs.

Water Polo Canada – waterpolo.ca

Active Start: Rip N' Ride

FUNdamentals: Rip N' Ride

Active Start: Rip N' Ride

In less than fifty years, water skiing has grown from a cottage industry to a Pan-American Games sport, and Canada is recognized as a world leader. In less than ten years, wakeboarding has grown into a World Class sport as well, of which Canada is also recognized as a world leader. Canadian skiers and riders have achieved spectacular results, including several World Championship Gold medals.

Water skiing and wakeboarding teach participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Water ski and wakeboard’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of nine stages.

  • Active Start (M, F 0-6) – Introduces fundamental movement and links them together into play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Refines fundamental movement skills and acquires basic sport skills.
  • FUNdations (M 10-12, F 9-11) – Fine tunes overall sport skills and develops sport-specific skills..
  • Build the Skills (M 13-16, F 12-15) – Consolidates sport-specific skills, develops speed, strength and training, and introduces competition.
  • Learn to Compete (M 17-20, F 16-19 water ski and barefoot; M 16-17, F 15-16 wake) – Prepares for the competitive environment by refining skills and continuing development of physical attributes and ancillary skills.
  • Train to Compete (M 19-23, F 18-22 water ski and barefoot; M 18-19, F 17-18 wake) – Transfers from training environment to competitive environment with predictable and appropriate performances.
  • Become a Champion (M 22-26, F 21-25 water ski and barefoot; M 20-24, F 19-21 wake) – Stabilization of performance-on-demand characteristics. .
  • Top of the Wake (M 25+, F 22+ water ski and barefoot; M 22+, F 20+ wake) – Establishes international excellence and podium performances at world championships.
  • Active for Life (enter at any age, and from any LTAD stage) – Encourages lifelong physical activity and participation in sport and recreation.

Waking Up Champions: Water Ski and Wakeboard LTAD
This framework provides guidelines for appropriate training, competition and recovery environments for athletes, based on developmental age – the maturation level of an individual – rather than simply chronological age.

Rip 'n Ride is a FUNdamentals skills development program that attracts, initiates and retains new participants to towed water sports.

SkiAbility, focusing on FUNdamentals, is a comprehensive clinic outreach program, whereby trained SkiAbility clinic facilitators deliver clinics and lessons to participants of all ages with different types of disabilities.

Both programs are integral components of Water Ski and Wakeboard Canada's FUNdamentalsFUNdations and Build the Skills programming in support of the LTAD model.

Water Ski and Wakeboard Canada – wswc.ca

Learn to Train: Bridging the Gap

The origins of wheelchair basketball come from the global crisis that was World War Two. As early-1940s society was inundated with more and more people who had acquired disabilities during the war, it was imperative that sports be modified to suit everyone’s needs. Wheelchair basketball has been played in Canada ever since. The Canadian Wheelchair Basketball League was founded in 1986 and today more than 2000 athletes compete nationwide.

Along with teamwork, wheelchair basketball teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

The primary goal of Bridging the Gap, which addresses the Active StartFUNdamentalsLearn To Train and Active for Lifestages, is to eliminate the gap between the introduction of sport and recreation in the rehabilitation setting and ensure continued involvement in physical activity.

Wheelchair Basketball Canada – wheelchairbasketball.ca

Learn to Train: Bridging the Gap

Wheelchair Rugby was invented in 1976 in Winnipeg, Canada, by a group of quadriplegic athletes who were looking for an alternative to wheelchair basketball.  They wanted a sport that players with reduced arm and hand function could participate in equally.  The sport they created, originally called "Murderball," is now known as "Wheelchair Rugby" across the world, and as "Quad Rugby" in the United States.  It’s a registered Paralympic sport which was introduced as an Exhibition sport at the 1996 Paralympics in Atlanta, and became a full-medal sport in Sydney, Australia in 2000.  Wheelchair Rugby is currently played in more than 34 countries.

Along with teamwork, wheelchair rugby teaches participants fundamental movement skills, fundamental sport skills and the ABCs – agility, balance, coordination and speed – of physical literacy.

Wheelchair Rugby’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model, entitled "Full Contact," consists of seven main stages, plus two additional ones which replace 'Active Start' and "FUNdamentals' for people with acquired disabilities.  Please note that all ages listed below reflect both chronological and developmental age.

  • Awareness and First Contact - For those individuals with an Acquired Disability.  These stages are directed through the healthcare and rehabilitation systems at young adults who are adjusting to a devastating change in their lives and who need to learn new skills, or relearn old skills, with very different abilty levels.
  • Active Start for those with a Congenital Disability (M, F 0-6) – Introduces fundamental movement skills through physical activity and play.
  • FUNdamentals (M 6-9, F 6-8) – Develops and builds fundamental movement skills for those with a Congenital Disability.  This stage is also bypassed by those with an Acquired Disability.
  • Learn to Train (M 9-12, F 8-11) – Begins league or provincial/territorial team play following progression through a developmental program.
  • Train to Train (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Participates in team practices that provide an effective learning environment, and begins to understand the individual physical training that is necessary to become a provincial or national team athlete.
  • Train to Compete (M 12-16, F 11-15) – Involves provincial/territorial team play and participation in national team try-outs.
  • Train to Win (M 19+/-, F 18+/-) – Begins with selection to the national team, which is designed to challenge high performance athletes to continually improve.
  • Active for Life (M, F all ages) – Athletes who retire from disability competition need to be encouraged to remain involved in the sport in new capacities as coaches or officials.  Players at this stage are also encouraged to remain involved in the sport, either competitively or recreationally, and remain active for life.  Since people become disabled at any age, no age has been assigned to this stage.

Awareness and Full Contact are designed to promote opportunities to participate in wheelchair sport to newly disabled individuals, and ensure they are educated, while helping them learn new skills and/or adapt their existing skills to sport.

  • Awareness – New recruits to wheelchair rugby are usually between the ages of 15 and 34, have suffered spinal cord injuries and are at various stages of their recovery. Because sport opportunities for people with disabilities are not always well known, sports need to develop awareness plans to make their offerings known to potential athletes.
  • First Contact – Sports have only one opportunity to create a positive environment for prospective athletes with disabilities, and research shows that if they don’t have a positive first experience, they may be lost to the sport and to a healthy lifestyle. Once individuals have been made aware of the sport opportunities, the next step is introducing them to a specific sport.

The primary goal of Bridging the Gap, which addresses the Active StartFUNdamentalsLearn To Train and Active for Lifestages, is to eliminate the gap between the introduction of sport and recreation in the rehabilitation setting and continued involvement in physical activity.

Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association – cwsa.ca

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